hardness of refinery coke
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hardness of refinery coke

STUDY ON PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM

secondary oil refining processes [1]. At present, these are three different types of coking processes: delayed, fluid and flexicoking, the he delayed coke is mostly used. Coke products from a delayed coker are classified as shot, sponge or needle coke depending on their chemical and physical characteristics. Shot coke, almost

Coke (fuel) - Wikipedia

Coke is a grey, hard, and porous fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, made by heating coal or oil in the absence of air—a destructive distillation process. It is an important industrial product, used mainly in iron ore smelting, but also as a fuel in stoves and forges when air pollution is a concern.. The unqualified term "coke" usually refers to the product derived from low ...

Impact of Feed Properties and ... - Refining Community

Petroleum Coke General Properties: Volatile Combustible Matter (VCM) • VCM is unconverted pitch – Target 12% Max, fuel coke 9% to 10% – 14% VCM is very high; Coke will be soft • Increases green coke hydrogen content • Rules of thumb for control in fuel coke – Increase heater outlet 5-7 °F for 1% decrease in VCM

Two Kinds of Coke FSC 432: Petroleum Refining

Two Kinds of Coke. There are two kinds of coke produced by delayed coking of VDR: high-density shot coke, and porous sponge coke. Figure 6.7 shows the appearances of shot coke consisting of aggregates of ~5 mm diameter spherical particles (resembling buckshots) and sponge coke (with a porous structure resembling a sponge).

Calcinations of Petroleum coke

Coker unit in a crude oil refinery. The calcined petroleum coke is used to make anodes for the aluminum, steel and titanium smelting industry. Calcined petroleum coke is shown in figure 2. Fig. 2 calcined petroleum coke . The . green coke. must have sufficiently low metals content in order to be used as anode material. Green coke with this low

Analysis and Characterization of High-Volatile Petroleum Coke

correlate well with the expected hardness and particle strength of the coke. In general, the lower the green coke volatile level, the harder is the coke and the more anisotropic. As isotropic coke ... coke heaps stored to the west of the Homs Oil refinery. The coke samples were first crushed so that 95% of the coke passed through a 4mm sieve ...

Petroleum Coke - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Generally rate of coke yield increases when rate of heating decreases; but gas yield also decreases with decrease in rate of heating. There is a delayed coker both at Gauhati and Barauni refinery. The Gauhati delayed coker has the capacity of 1000 tons/day (operates at 495°C, 2–4 kg/cm 2 pressure and a recycle to feed-stock ratio of 1:1.1 ...

Tutorial: Delayed Coking Fundamentals

The delayed coker is the only main process in a modern petroleum refinery that is a batch-continuous process. The flow through the tube furnace is continuous. The feed stream is switched between two drums. One drum is on-line filling with coke while the other drum is being steam-stripped, cooled, decoked, pressure checked, and warmed up.

The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum ...

Dec 20, 2014  The Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) is a measure of hardness (lower value = harder), and the data highlight the hardness of shot coke relative to sponge coke. Independent or merchant calciners (those not integrated with refineries) typically blend different quality GPCs together to produce CPC that meets anode specifications for S, V, Ni ...

US7803627B2 - Process for evaluating quality of coke and ...

Process for evaluating the coke and/or bitumen yield and quality of a plurality of refinery feedstocks, by (i) providing a plurality of refinery feedstocks, (ii) placing a sample of each of the plurality of refinery feedstocks on a heating device, (iii) heating each sample under vacuum to a temperature in the range 300° C. to 420° C. using the respective heating device while measuring the ...

Refiner addresses coker furnace, transfer-line reliability ...

A hole was discovered in 2001 in the El Segundo refinery coker furnace’s rounded return bend, installed in 1995. The photo shows the outside and inside view after removal (Fig. 1).

Coking Process - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

James G. Speight, in The Refinery of the Future, 2011 5.4.2 Coking. On the other hand, delayed coking is likely to remain the workhorse of thermal cracking processes for the foreseeable future. Online spalling, decoking techniques have been developed, based on successful, similar application in delayed coker

Coking valves for the delayed coker process

The delayed coker process is a batch process, one of the most hostile environments in the refinery – due to the abrasive and erosive fouling properties of the coke by-product.The valves also experience extreme thermal cycling. Valves are cycled frequently and failure can lead to a complete shutdown of a unit, resulting in large process and ...

Energy Argus Petroleum Coke

Sep 05, 2012  sulphur, hard coke cargo via tender every two months or so. A Latin American national oil company also awarded 180,000mt of 6pc sulphur coke with 40 HGI to one buyer, after entering the market in August with a sell tender. The volume was expected

Petroleum Coke - Oxbow

Petroleum coke (petcoke) is a byproduct of the oil refining process. As refineries worldwide seek to operate more efficiently and extract more gasoline and other high value fuels from each barrel of crude oil, a solid carbon material known as petcoke is produced. The physical and chemical characteristics of petcoke are a function of the crude ...

Petroleum coke is a byproduct of the oil refinery industry

Petroleum coke is used in many applications, including electrodes and anodes. It is also used as a fuel in the metal and brick industries. Petroleum coke is a material relatively low in cost and high in heat value and carbon content with good chemical stability, making it an efficient and cost-effective fuel for producing metal, brick, and related products.

DESIGN, OPERATION FACTORS CAN UP COKER LIQUID YIELDS

In a modern, complex refinery HCGO can be upgraded to valuable light distillate transportation fuels by means of hydrotreating plus fluid catalytic cracking or hydrocracking with net coke makes ...

Engineering, Pulping and Environmental Conference

Fuel Coke is Getting Harder Fuel Coke Production by Hardness 0 5 10 15 20 25 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 +70 Hardgrove Index (HGI) Million MT Harder • Trend toward more heavy crudes ÆHard petcoke • Harder petcoke more difficult to market – Increased energy required to grind • Volume of sub 40 HGI petcoke expected to increase

Analysis and Characterization of High-Volatile Petroleum Coke

correlate well with the expected hardness and particle strength of the coke. In general, the lower the green coke volatile level, the harder is the coke and the more anisotropic. As isotropic coke ... coke heaps stored to the west of the Homs Oil refinery. The coke samples were first crushed so that 95% of the coke passed through a 4mm sieve ...

Petroleum Coke - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Generally rate of coke yield increases when rate of heating decreases; but gas yield also decreases with decrease in rate of heating. There is a delayed coker both at Gauhati and Barauni refinery. The Gauhati delayed coker has the capacity of 1000 tons/day (operates at 495°C, 2–4 kg/cm 2 pressure and a recycle to feed-stock ratio of 1:1.1 ...

Petroleum Coke - Oxbow

Petroleum coke (petcoke) is a byproduct of the oil refining process. As refineries worldwide seek to operate more efficiently and extract more gasoline and other high value fuels from each barrel of crude oil, a solid carbon material known as petcoke is produced. The physical and chemical characteristics of petcoke are a function of the crude ...

Petroleum coke is a byproduct of the oil refinery industry

Petroleum coke is used in many applications, including electrodes and anodes. It is also used as a fuel in the metal and brick industries. Petroleum coke is a material relatively low in cost and high in heat value and carbon content with good chemical stability, making it an efficient and cost-effective fuel for producing metal, brick, and related products.

US7803627B2 - Process for evaluating quality of coke and ...

Process for evaluating the coke and/or bitumen yield and quality of a plurality of refinery feedstocks, by (i) providing a plurality of refinery feedstocks, (ii) placing a sample of each of the plurality of refinery feedstocks on a heating device, (iii) heating each sample under vacuum to a temperature in the range 300° C. to 420° C. using the respective heating device while measuring the ...

Metallurgical Coke Testing Analysis – MSK

Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of approx 7050kcal/kg and above. Some coke making processes produce valuable by-products that include coal tar, ammonia, light oils, and "coal gas". ... and "coal gas". Petroleum coke is the solid residue obtained in oil refining, which resembles coke but contains too many ...

Coking Process - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

James G. Speight, in The Refinery of the Future, 2011 5.4.2 Coking. On the other hand, delayed coking is likely to remain the workhorse of thermal cracking processes for the foreseeable future. Online spalling, decoking techniques have been developed, based on successful, similar application in delayed coker

Energy Argus Petroleum Coke

Sep 05, 2012  sulphur, hard coke cargo via tender every two months or so. A Latin American national oil company also awarded 180,000mt of 6pc sulphur coke with 40 HGI to one buyer, after entering the market in August with a sell tender. The volume was expected

Coking valves for the delayed coker process

The delayed coker process is a batch process, one of the most hostile environments in the refinery – due to the abrasive and erosive fouling properties of the coke by-product.The valves also experience extreme thermal cycling. Valves are cycled frequently and failure can lead to a complete shutdown of a unit, resulting in large process and ...

Green Petroleum Coke - AMINCO RESOURCES

Green Petroleum Coke. Green petroleum coke is generated by delayed coking during the conversion of crude oil into liquid fuels such as gasoline and jet fuels. Green coke quality is derived mainly from the quality of crude oil that a refinery consumes. The quality of the coke determines its use. High sulfur coke is consumed as a solid fuel for ...

Safety Of Refinery `Cokers' A Concern -- 1984 Explosion ...

The coke is then pierced with a drill and broken up and blasted out with a high-pressure spray. It is used as a fuel in aluminum plants. "All of the units in the refinery can be extremely dangerous," Lind said. But he said the "coker" - or delayed coker unit - is the only section routinely opened to the outside so that product can be removed.

Coal and Coke - Cargo Handbook - the world's largest cargo ...

Coke is the solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. Cokes from coal are grey, hard, and porous. While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly used form is man-made. Coke is used as a fuel and as

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of 24.8 million Btu per ton. Coke (petroleum): A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking ...

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